Cats are obligate carnivores. This means that cats must eat meat, it is an absolute biological necessity in order to cathrive. Plant-based proteins found in vegetables and grains are not an adequate substitute. Taurine is a specific amino acid which is found in meat. Cats are unable to synthesise taurine by themselves and it is therefore an essential component of all cat's diets. Insufficient levels of taurine in the diet can result in heart disease, problems with vision and other health issues.
As cat must eat meat to meet their nutritional need, including the provision of taurine, the simple answer to whether cats can thrive on a vegan diet, is ...no they cannot.